Understanding Premises Liability: When Property Owners Are Liable for Injuries

July 8, 2024

Discover the intricacies of premises liability law, where property owners can be held accountable for injuries sustained on their premises. Learn about the duty of care, types of visitors, common causes of accidents, elements of a claim, defenses against liability, and steps to take if injured on someone's property.

Have you ever slipped on a wet floor in a grocery store or tripped over a broken sidewalk in your neighborhood? These types of accidents fall under the legal concept of premises liability, where property owners can be held responsible for injuries that occur on their premises. Understanding premises liability is essential for both property owners and visitors alike, as it helps clarify who is responsible for maintaining safe conditions and preventing accidents.

Duty of Care

The duty of care refers to the legal obligation imposed on property owners to take reasonable steps to prevent harm to individuals who enter their property lawfully. Essentially, it means that property owners must exercise a certain level of care and caution to ensure that their premises are safe for visitors.

Property owners have a duty to maintain their premises in a reasonably safe condition to prevent foreseeable harm to visitors. This includes regularly inspecting the property for potential hazards, repairing any dangerous conditions promptly, and providing warnings when hazards cannot be immediately rectified.

For example, if a property owner is aware of a broken staircase on their premises, they have a duty to repair it or warn visitors of the danger. Similarly, if there's a spill in a grocery store aisle, the property owner must promptly clean it up or cordon off the area to prevent slip and fall accidents.

The extent of the property owner's duty of care can vary depending on factors such as the type of property, the nature of the hazard, and the status of the visitor. However, in general, property owners are expected to exercise reasonable care to protect the safety of all individuals who enter their premises.

Types of Visitors


Invitees are individuals who enter a property with the express or implied invitation of the property owner for a lawful purpose. This category typically includes customers at retail stores, patrons at restaurants, and guests at social gatherings hosted on the property.

Property owners owe the highest duty of care to invitees. They are required to regularly inspect the premises for hazards, repair any dangerous conditions promptly, and warn invitees of any known risks that may not be immediately apparent. The property owner must take reasonable precautions to ensure the safety of invitees while they are on the premises.


Licensees are individuals who enter a property with the permission of the property owner for their own purposes, such as social guests or friends. Unlike invitees, licensees do not necessarily provide a benefit to the property owner, but they are still entitled to a certain level of protection under premises liability law.

Property owners owe a duty of care to licensees to maintain the premises in a reasonably safe condition and warn them of any known hazards that may pose a risk of harm. However, the duty of care owed to licensees is generally lower than that owed to invitees. Property owners must exercise reasonable care to prevent foreseeable harm to licensees while they are on the premises.


Trespassers are individuals who enter a property without permission or legal right to do so. While property owners do not owe a duty of care to trespassers in most circumstances, there are exceptions, particularly when the property owner is aware of the trespasser's presence.

In some cases, property owners may owe a duty of care to trespassers if they are aware of dangerous conditions on the property and fail to take reasonable steps to warn trespassers or make the premises safe. However, the duty of care owed to trespassers is generally limited compared to that owed to invitees and licensees.

Common Causes of Premises Liability Cases

Slippery Surfaces: Wet or slippery floors, whether due to spills, leaks, or inadequate cleaning, pose a significant hazard to visitors and can result in slip and fall accidents.

Uneven Surfaces: Cracked sidewalks, uneven pavement, or poorly maintained walkways can cause trip and fall accidents, leading to injuries such as sprains, fractures, or head trauma.

Inadequate Lighting: Insufficient lighting in stairwells, hallways, parking lots, or other common areas can increase the risk of accidents and make it difficult for visitors to navigate safely.

Faulty Staircases or Handrails: Broken or poorly maintained staircases, missing handrails, or loose steps can pose a danger to visitors, particularly the elderly or individuals with mobility issues.

Dangerous Conditions on Playgrounds: Defective playground equipment, lack of supervision, or inadequate safety measures can lead to injuries to children, such as falls, cuts, or fractures.

Negligent Security: Failure to provide adequate security measures, such as locks, lighting, or surveillance cameras, can make a property vulnerable to criminal activities such as assaults, robberies, or burglaries.

Elements of a Premises Liability Claim

Duty of Care: The plaintiff must demonstrate that the property owner owed a duty of care to ensure the safety of visitors on the premises. This duty of care varies depending on the legal classification of the visitor (invitee, licensee, trespasser) and the circumstances of the case.

Breach of Duty: The plaintiff must show that the property owner breached their duty of care by failing to maintain safe premises or address known hazards in a timely manner. This may involve proving negligence, such as inadequate maintenance, failure to warn of dangers, or failure to implement reasonable security measures.

Causation: The plaintiff must establish a causal connection between the property owner's breach of duty and the injuries sustained by the plaintiff. In other words, the plaintiff must demonstrate that the hazardous condition on the premises directly caused or contributed to their injuries.

Damages: Finally, the plaintiff must provide evidence of the damages suffered as a result of the accident, such as medical expenses, lost wages, pain and suffering, and other losses. These damages serve as compensation for the injuries and harm caused by the property owner's negligence.

Burden of Proof and Negligence in Premises Liability Cases

In premises liability cases, the burden of proof typically rests with the plaintiff, who must demonstrate by a preponderance of the evidence that the property owner's negligence caused their injuries. This means that the plaintiff must provide sufficient evidence to establish that it is more likely than not that the property owner breached their duty of care and caused the plaintiff's injuries.

Negligence is a central concept in premises liability law, requiring the plaintiff to prove that the property owner failed to exercise reasonable care in maintaining safe premises. This involves evaluating the property owner's actions or omissions in light of what a reasonable person would do under similar circumstances. If the property owner's conduct falls below the standard of care expected of a reasonable person, they may be found negligent and held liable for any resulting injuries.

Defenses Against Premises Liability Claims

Lack of Notice: Property owners may argue that they were not aware of the hazardous condition on their premises and, therefore, cannot be held liable for injuries resulting from that condition. This defense is particularly relevant if the property owner did not have actual or constructive knowledge of the hazard.

Comparative Negligence: Property owners may assert that the plaintiff's own negligence contributed to their injuries, thereby reducing or eliminating the property owner's liability. Comparative negligence allows for the apportionment of fault between the parties based on their respective degrees of negligence. In states that follow a comparative negligence framework, the plaintiff's recovery may be reduced by their percentage of fault for the accident.

Assumption of Risk: Property owners may argue that the plaintiff voluntarily assumed the risk of injury by engaging in a hazardous activity or knowingly exposing themselves to a dangerous condition. In such cases, the property owner may contend that the plaintiff's actions relieve them of liability for any resulting injuries.

Open and Obvious Doctrine: Property owners may assert that the hazardous condition was open and obvious to the plaintiff, and therefore, the plaintiff should have been aware of the risk and taken reasonable precautions to avoid injury. Under this doctrine, property owners may argue that they had no duty to warn of or remedy an obvious danger.

Steps to Take If Injured on Someone's Property

Seek Medical Attention: Your health and well-being should be your top priority. If you've been injured, seek medical attention immediately, even if your injuries seem minor. Some injuries may not be immediately apparent, so it's crucial to undergo a thorough medical evaluation to assess the extent of your injuries and receive appropriate treatment.

Report the Incident: Notify the property owner or manager about the incident as soon as possible. Provide them with a detailed account of what happened and any injuries you sustained. Ask them to document the incident in their records, and request a copy of the incident report for your records.

Document the Scene: If possible, take photographs or videos of the accident scene, including any hazardous conditions that contributed to your injuries. Documenting the scene can provide valuable evidence to support your premises liability claim and establish the dangerous conditions present on the property.

Collect Witness Information: Obtain contact information from any witnesses who observed the accident or can provide information about the hazardous conditions on the property. Witness testimony can corroborate your account of the incident and strengthen your premises liability claim.

Preserve Evidence: Preserve any physical evidence related to the accident, such as torn clothing, damaged personal belongings, or medical records. This evidence can help establish the extent of your injuries and the impact of the accident on your life.

Keep Records of Expenses: Keep detailed records of all expenses incurred as a result of the accident, including medical bills, prescription medications, transportation costs, and lost wages. These expenses may be recoverable as part of your premises liability claim.

Consult with a Premises Liability Attorney: Consider consulting with a qualified premises liability attorney who can assess the merits of your case, explain your legal rights, and guide you through the claims process. An experienced attorney can help you navigate the complexities of premises liability law and advocate on your behalf to seek fair compensation for your injuries and losses.